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It is possible that resource limitation has a differential effect on the different components of the immune system (i.e., there is no correlated response). This could occur if individuals invested strategically in the different components of their immune systems. There could be sensible evolutionary reasons for doing this. There is evidence that limiting access to resources, such as energy or protein, compromises immune defense (e.g., Glick et al., 1981 , 1983 ; Lochmiller et al., 1993 ; Saino et al., 1997b ). As a result, it is possible that investment in one component of the immune system could compromise an animal's ability to invest in other components. Under these circumstances, animals could be forced to optimize their investment in each component, based on selection pressures generated by the important pathogens and parasites their immune systems have to combat. Investment of limited resources in immune system components should reflect the fitness effects on the host imposed by pathogens and parasites controlled by each component. How might such strategic investment influence the relationship between immunocompetence measures and resource limitation?

As resource limitation becomes more severe, investment in immune system components should be altered to maximize fitness for a given resource availability. This could conceivably mean that, as resource limitation increases, investment is initially reduced in one component (A) to maintain the effectiveness of another component (B), especially if component B is crucial in controlling potentially pathogenic infections. Clearly, if the immunocompetence of the host was measured by assessing a single component of the immune system under these circumstances, two different conclusions might be reached. If component A were assessed, it would be concluded that resource limitation reduced immunocompetence. However, if component B were assessed, it would be concluded that resource limitation had no significant effect on immunocompetence.

There is evidence that selection can influence investment in one component of the immune system to the detriment of other components. Artificial selection can be used to produce domestic fowl lines that exhibit high (HA) or low (LA) antibody titers when immunized with sheep erythrocytes ( Seigel and Gross, 1980 ). Gross et al. ( 1980 ) showed that HA birds were significantly less effective at controlling bacterial infections compared with LA birds. Bacterial infections are generally controlled by phagocytosing cells such as heterophils (i.e., innate immunity; Roitt et al., 1998 ), so these results suggest that selection for an improved immune response from a component of the acquired immune system could reduce investment in innate immunity. That is, there could be a trade-off between investment in different immune system components.

If investment in immune system components is shaped by selection in a similar way in wild bird populations, then ecological studies that examine the competence of only a single immune system component run an increased risk of type II statistical errors—failing to reject the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between immunocompetence and life-history decisions. This means that ecologists assessing only a single immune system component should be wary of nonsignificant results. However, significant results can be regarded as reliable evidence that life-history decisions do have consequences for immunocompetence.

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The Polish Formalist School and Russian Formalism


A comparison of two schools of literary criticism, showing how the Polish Formalist School modified and transcended the original ideas of Russian Formalism.


January 2004 236 pages 6x9 in Rochester Studies in East and Central Europe ISBN: 9781580461108 Format: Hardback University of Rochester Press BIC DSA, 1DV, 2AB, 3JJ BISAC LIT004130, LIT014000
Anticipation of Polish Formalism Kazimierz Woycicki: The Foundation of Polish Formalism Manfred Kridl: The Integration of Polish Formalism The Polish School of Formalism: History, Theory, and Practice
Overall, this study will be helpful to those who are interested in the evolution of twentieth-century Polish literary criticism, particularly in the development of Woycicki and Kridl. SLAVIC AND EAST EUROPEAN REVIEW, Volume 87 No 1 [Andrea Hacker]

T. David Curp

University of Rochester Press
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University of Rochester Press

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It appears that the email Hanley forwarded to Clinton is the former Secretary of State’s June 28 email exchange with Obama. Perhaps Hanley sought further instructions or actions from her boss regarding the email. It’s unclear how the FBI obtained the email or if it was one of the emails Clinton deleted from her server. The chain of three emails—Obama-Clinton, Clinton-Obama, Hanley-Clinton—as the Judicial Watch document shows, are being withheld by the State Department “pursuant to the presidential communications privilege.”

The Compromised Server At the time of the Obama-Clinton exchange, Clinton was still using a server in the basement of her house in Chappaqua, New York. According to the FBI’s July 2016 Buy Cheap Sneakernews Pumps amp; High Heels for Women On Sale in Outlet Nude Patent Leather 2017 6 Sergio Rossi Free Shipping Latest Sneakernews Cheap Price bIQmJPShKO
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Early Withdrawal Symptoms

These usually start within 6-12 hours for short-acting opiates, and they start within 30 hours for longer-acting ones:

Late Withdrawal Symptoms

These peak within 72 hours and usually last a week or so:

Some of the psychological withdrawal symptoms and cravings for opioid drugs may continue longer than a week in some cases. Therapy and psychological support provided by a mental health professional as a part of a complete substance abuse treatment program can decrease the symptoms and side effects of withdrawal.

Mental health professionals can also evaluate and stabilize individuals during medical detox. While there is no specific timeline for detox, as each individual will likely experience withdrawal from opiates differently, medical detox usually lasts 5-7 days.

Opioid drugs should not be stopped suddenly, without physical and emotional support and supervision, as the side effects of withdrawal may be powerful and even have dangerous complications.

Medications, such as anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and other symptom-specific pharmaceuticals, may be useful during medical detox to control the more difficult withdrawal symptoms.

Medical professionals may help an individual wean off opioid drugs by slowly lowering, or tapering, the dosage during medical detox. This keeps the opioid receptors filled and prevents the onset of severe withdrawal symptoms. Drug cravings and withdrawal as a whole may be managed by replacing a short-acting opioid like heroin with a longer-acting one such as methadone. Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist often used during opioid detox and dependency treatment as well, as it remains active in the body for longer than most opioids and requires a lower dosage amount. Partial agonists also do not usually create the same “high” as full agonists do, therefore making them less likely to be abused. Buprenorphine even stops being effective after a certain point, further acting as an abuse deterrent.

Naloxone and naltrexone are opioid antagonists that bind to opioid receptor sites along the central nervous system and “block” other opioids from filling them. This means that even if someone tries to take a drug like heroin while on an antagonist, the drug will not produce the desired effects and instead may cause a precipitated withdrawal syndrome to start. Precipitated withdrawal is the sudden and rapid onset of withdrawal symptoms, which can be intense and can serve to keep someone on an antagonist from attempting to abuse an opioid agonist at the same time.
Naloxone is added to buprenorphine as an inactive relapse-prevention agent in drugs like Suboxone and Zubsolv unless the drugs are altered and then abused via injection. Naltrexone products like ReVia, Depade, and Vivitrol are used more commonly to help prevent relapse after detox is completed and opioid drugs are fully removed from the brain and body. The intention of detox is to stabilize an individual dependent on opioids both emotionally and physically, and detox may use both pharmacological and psychological therapy methods to accomplish this.
Since addiction is a chronic and relapsing disease, with both physical and emotional side effects and symptoms, treatment needs to be comprehensive. Medical detox is relatively short and can provide the stepping stones for a more stable recovery. Relapse is common for individuals struggling with addiction as it may seem like a return to drug abuse may offer relief. After a period of not using drugs, tolerance to certain levels of drugs may be reduced, however, and relapse after detox can be especially dangerous as it may increase the risk for a fatal overdose.
Drug overdose is the leading cause of injury death in America. The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) estimates that 100 Americans die of a drug overdose every day, and 46 people in the United States die daily due to prescription opioid overdose. reports that opioids are responsible for more deaths than any other medication or drug. Medical detox may help smooth out withdrawal, reducing side effects, preventing serious complications, and reducing drug cravings. This can provide a good start toward recovery and help to maintain sobriety long-term.

Detox followed with counseling, education, family and individual therapy, and support groups can help an individual stop using drugs and maintain sobriety.